Education in Turkey

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Formal education in Turkey, which is governed by the Ministry of National Education includes pre-school education, primary education and secondary education. Turkish primary education is compulsory for every Turkish citizen from the age of six to the age of fourteen, regardless of sex, and is free of charge in state schools. At the end of high school, following the 12th grade,students take the National University Entrance Examination (OSS - to continue their studies at a university or a two year school. Although students can take the test and try to get placed in any major, practically speaking, they opt to select a major related to their track in high school. The reason for this is hat they lose points if they apply for a field different than their track. Exam scores are weighted to provide students in each track with different opportunities when entering higher education. There is a tuition fee for higher education. However, successful students who lack the financial means to continue their education are provided with full support by private individuals and organizations, as well as by the state. The university is the principal higher education institution. There are 94 public and 38 foundation universities in Turkey. The university possesses academic autonomy and a public legal personality. It is responsible for carrying out high level educational activities, scientific research and publications. It is made up of faculties (group of departments rather than jsut instructors as in the American usage of the term), graduate schools, schools of higher education, conservatories, two-year vocational training schools and centers for applied work and research. Graduate-level programs consist of masters and doctoral programs, coordinated by institutes for graduate studies
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